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2006

Lapped-orthogonal-transform-based adaptive image watermarking

10 years 1 months ago
Lapped-orthogonal-transform-based adaptive image watermarking
A robust, invisible watermarking scheme is proposed for digital images, where the watermark is embedded using the blockbased lapped orthogonal transform (LOT). The embedding process follows a spread spectrum watermarking approach. In contrast to the use of transforms such as discrete cosine transform, our LOT watermarking scheme allows larger watermark embedding energy while maintaining the same level of subjective invisibility. In particular, the use of LOT reduces block artifacts caused by the insertion of the watermark in a block-by-block manner, hence obtaining a better balance between invisibility and robustness. Moreover, we use a human visual system (HVS) model to adaptively adjust the energy of the watermark during embedding. In our HVS model, each block is categorized into one of four classes (texture, fine-texture, edge, and plain-area) by using a feature known as the texture masking energy. Blocks with edges are also classified according to the edge direction. The block clas...
Yuxin Liu, Bin Ni, Xiaojun Feng, Edward J. Delp
Added 13 Dec 2010
Updated 13 Dec 2010
Type Journal
Year 2006
Where JEI
Authors Yuxin Liu, Bin Ni, Xiaojun Feng, Edward J. Delp
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