The construction process is subject to an array of influences, both from internal and external environments, which makes the process performance uncertain and difficult to predict. To deal with uncertainty, simulation is widely applied in construction process modeling. Most of the applications, however, are restricted to quantitative models due to limited qualitative simulation capabilities. In this paper, Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) are proposed as a means for modeling and controlling complex construction performance–related problems qualitatively. They provide an effective tool for answering what-if questions during the construction planning phase.