A semantically driven Virtual Organisation (VO) model for predicting important events for coral reefs is presented – the Semantic Reef. The model is an application of a Semantic Grid that encapsulates services and resources to produce a complex higher-level knowledge base in order to predict coral bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef. The goal is to enable the synergistic interplay between different e-Research tools to produce a model that can evaluate complex hypotheses. Built on a Grid infrastructure and invoking an ontology to map to currently non-communicative datasets, the Semantic Reef model is designed to address specific scientific problems such as the prediction of coral bleaching events. The outcome is not only a model for exploring a diverse range of e-Research challenges, but also potentially a re-usable interoperable knowledge base can then be accessed as a resource in other VOs.